Section 5: History & Current Affairs


THE HISTORY OF LGBT PERSECUTION

  • Wikipedia – Violence against LGBTI people (“Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people frequently face violence motivated by their sexuality or gender identity.[1] Violence may be executed by the state, as in laws prescribing corporal punishment for homosexual acts (see homosexuality laws), or by individuals engaging in intimidation, mobbing, assault, or lynching (see gay bashing, trans bashing). Violence targeted at people because of their perceived sexuality can be psychological or physical and can extend to murder. These actions may be motivated by homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and may be influenced by cultural, religious, or political mores and biases. In the modern Western world and much of the developed world in general, where homosexual acts have been legal in almost all countries since at least the 1940s, violence against LGBT people is often qualified as a hate crime,[2] motivated by homophobia, and is often connected with either extremist religious or political ideologies which condemn homosexuality and relate it to being weak, ill, feminine, or morally wrong.”)
  • The History of Truth Wins Out (“The right wing has launched a multi-million dollar culture war. Their goals include ending the separation of church and state and persecuting groups who do not share their puritanical beliefs. The gay and lesbian community is their number one target. There is no limit to what the right will say or do in its effort to deny GLBT people their birthright of full-citizenship.“)
  • Hate Crime, Bias Crimes & Homophobia (“These sites deal with hate crimes and bias motivated violence based on [perceived] sexual orientation and directed against the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.“)
  • 20080727 – Gunman Opens Fire On Gay-Friendly Church, Two Killed (“A lone man armed with a 12-gauge shotgun entered the sanctuary of the Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church in Knoxville, Tennessee, just after 10:00 am this morning and opened fire, killing two people and wounding at least seven others before being subdued by members of the congregation.” The church’s welcome of LGBT members is believed to be the reason for the attack.)
  • Slouching Towards Kampala: Uganda’s Deadly Embrace of Hate (“Beginning in 2009, BTB has been closely monitoring events leading up to and following the introduction of Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Bill. These pages include links to all of our posts, and including more information that we learned after some of the events took place. These pages will be updated as events continue to unfold. – following the involvement of the American religious right wing and notorious ex-gay movement in the events still unfolding in Uganda. Also mentions Scott Lively, now charged with crimes against humanity.)
  • The Pink Swastika (The vicious piece of holocaust revisionism by Scott Lively, in the name of Christianity. “The Pink Swastika: Homosexuality in the Nazi Party is a book first published in 1995 by Scott Lively and Kevin Abrams.[1] The book drew criticism from historians.” “Erik N. Jensen regards the authors’ linkage of homosexuality and Nazism as the recurrence of a “pernicious myth”, originating in 1930s attacks on Nazism by Socialists and Communists and “long since dispelled” by “serious scholarship”.[5] Jensen sees the book as coming about in “the aftermath of an Oregon measure to repeal gay rights“.[5] Dorthe Seifert cites it as a response to increasing awareness of Nazi persecution of homosexuals.[6] Christine L. Mueller argues that the historical record does not support Abrams’ assertions.[7] Bob Moser, writing for the Southern Poverty Law Center, says the book was promoted by anti-gay groups and that historians agree its premise is “utterly false”.[8] Jonathan Zimmerman, an historian at New York University, wrote the claim that gay people helped bring Nazism to Germany “is a flat-out lie.”[9] Zimmerman, points out that “Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis arrested roughly 100,000 men as homosexuals. Most convicted gays were sent to prison; between 5,000 and 15,000 were interned in concentration camps, where they wore pink triangles to signify their supposed crime.”[9] He further notes, “To win their release from the camps, some gays were forced to undergo castration. Others were mutilated or murdered in so-called medical experiments by Nazi doctors, who insisted that homosexuality was a disease that could be ‘cured’.”[9] In addition, “Hitler authorized an edict in 1941 prescribing the death penalty for SS and police members found guilty of gay activity.”[9]) 

ON GENOCIDE & HATE CRIME

  • 8 Recognizable Stages of Genocide (“By Gregory H. Stanton, President, Genocide Watch. Classification Symbolization Dehumanization Organization Polarization Preparation Extermination Denial. Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive measures can stop it. The process is not linear. Logically, later stages must be preceded by earlier stages. But all stages continue to operate throughout the process.“)
  • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, New York, 9 December 1948 (“The Convention, a major pillar in the evolving framework of international humanitarian rules, declares genocide a crime under international law. It condemns genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, and provides a definition of this crime. Moreover, the prescribed punishment is not subject to the limitations of time and place.”)
  • Argument showing anti hate crimes law does not target religious beliefs, just hate crime and incitement to it. (“…a collection of the nation’s most obnoxious anti-gay activists showed up in Washington DC to have a showdown with the government. They were there to defy the new law criminalizing preaching against homosexuality and to be arrested for preaching the gospel.“)
  • 65 Years After Auschwitz & Christianists Have Learned Nothing (Compares anti semetic Nazi propaganda against GOP anti gay propaganda. – “As noted by Bob Felton at >Civil Commotion, January 27, 2011, was the 65th anniversary of the day that Allied forces liberated Auschwitz and discovered the full extent of the horrors of the “Final Solution.” The hatred and malicious denigration of others can lead to shocking horrors, yet conservative Christians in the USA and their minions and hangers overseas (such as in Uganda) have apparently learned nothing from the nightmare of the Nazi regime and its deadly propaganda campaign against Jews. We hear much about supposedly “protecting marriage” from the Christian right, but their true agenda is denigrating LGBT citizens and keeping us a hated class of individuals. Indeed, as the now defunct HateCrimes.org website once set out in detail (some of the details are still available here), the Christian right continues to use an anti-gay propaganda campaign eerily similar to those used by the Nazis against the Jews more than seven decades ago.“) 

TRANSPHOBIA

  • The List (“What follows is a list of transgender people whose deaths are attributable to prejudice and that were reported in the media during the past year. This list does not include victims that were unreported.”- if this won’t make you cry, nothing will.) 

RELIGIOUS ANTI-LGBT HATRED

  • 20120521 – Just Your Friendly Local Preacher Advocating Death to Gays (Pastor Charles Worley of Maiden, N.C.’s Providence Road Baptist Church recently told his congregation that lesbians and “queers” should be rounded up, placed in camps with electrified fencing, and left to die. Worley believes that placing gays in camps will ensure homosexuality dies out since gays “don’t reproduce.” Worley isn’t apologizing for his sermon, saying,”We offer NO apologies in believing the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible is the inerrant Word of God. If you live in this area or are ever passing through, I invite you to come visit with us at Providence Road Baptist Church.”” – Funny the pastor doesn’t seem to be aware that King James himself was gay. Ironic.) 
  • 20090108 – God commands you kill gays (“I spend a lot of time here mocking Religious Right groups and activists for their views of homosexuality, but as Jeremy says about these audio clips he posted the other day, “this ‘culture war’ is all fun and games until someone wants to execute you.” And he’s not joking. Just listen to these rants from Steven L. Anderson of Faithful Word Baptist Church in Tempe, AZ, explaining to his audience how gays are out to rape their children in order to recruit them and says that the only way to stop them is to kill them.” –  Pretty self-explanatory really.)
  • Christian Action Network (CAN) CAN – Christian Action Network (a conglomerate of small Christo-fascist groups mostly led by front-man “Dr” Peter Hammond – a Christian fundamentalist activist who is anti Muslim, anti-feminist, anti-gay, and has been tied to gun-running and covert Apartheid-era espionage and intrigue – and has also been involved in an incident in Cape Town in which a child was shot in the face while trick-or-treating Halloween 2005).
  • Christians For Truth (LMAO – excuse me)
  • Frontline Fellowship (CAN’s own little online bookshop which peddles Hammond’s hate-inciting books because no other publisher will touch them)
  • Christian Liberty Books (CAN’s own little ChristianIST printing press masquerading as a “Christian publisher” which only produces CAN’s in-house materials)
  • The Reformation Society (A right wing ChristianIST think-tank of which CAN forms a large part, working to transform Christianity into an extremist force to take control of *gasp* the WORLD. Reference the Wikipedia links at the top on Reconstructionism)
  • Dr Peet Botha (Homosexuality.co.za – Another member of CAN/FF etc’s network spreading lies and misinformation about homosexuality, breaking down human rights, etc. Now removed, finally.)
  • Kwasizabantu (An evangelical right wing mission school indoctrinating black youth with messages of hatred from Peter Hammond and Focus on the Family.) 
  • Joy! Magazine (“Real People, Real Life, Real Christianity” – A religious fundamentalist rag peddling fundamentalist anti-everything christo-fascism. Erroll Naidoo and Peter Hammond are both listed on the editorial staff and regularly feature their inane “persecuted church” conspiracy-theory claptrap in articles, while using their religious soap-box to incite hatred and persecution of other cultures, religions and of course, those ‘evil and threatening homosexualists [sic]’.)
  • Gospel Defence League (A religious fundamentalist sewing and gossip circle that formed part of the CAN’s root, but whose site no longer exists.)
  • African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) (A homophobic christo-fascist party in South Africa involved in some events in Uganda and actively trying to take power in South Africa to erase that annoying little line between church and state since 1993. Since their disastrous failure in the 2009 elections, they have cleaned up their public websites, policy statements etc to carefully avoid mention of sexual orientation or gender identity, but instead refer to ‘Christian and family values’, protecting ‘the Family’ against anything they perceive as ‘a threat’. Same ass, different hat.)
  • Family Policy Institute (FPI) (Using the ironic slogan “Defending Faith, Family & Freedom”, this group, based in Cape Town at 49 Parliament Street and led by Erroll Naidoo, a “pastor” who has openly stated in media interviews that he hates gay people, done his worst for two decades to ban Pride events around the country by making false claims of public pornography, indecent behavior, child abuse (including accusations of child labor) and who has been colluding with sympathetic fundies in government to strip liberalism and human rights out of the Constitution and SA Law in favor of replacing it with the fundamentalist interpretation of the Christian bible. This group has been working to unite all right wing extremist homophobic political parties into one “Republican Party for South Africa since 2009.)
  • Conservapedia (“The reliable encyclopedia” *Snort* Yes, we can believe all the stuff on their site – lulz)
  • Angus Buchan (The ding-bat darling of the Rapport and Die Burger, the ex-pat Zimbabwean potato preacher with his silly hat and right-wing chauvinist message of hate to “real men” who have their dilly wives permission to pretend to be the boss in the house and in the bedroom.)

On The Separation Of Religion And The State:

The original US Constitution – proof that religious fundamentalists weasel their way into anything and then try to change history to suit themselves by saying “it was ALWAYS this way.”
US Constitution
Did you know
African Persecution – Homosexuality/on LGBT being “Un-African”:
  • 21 varieties of traditional African homosexuality – January 30, 2014 (“At least 21 cultural varieties of same-sex relationships have long been part of traditional African life, as demonstrated in a new report that is designed to dispel the confusion and lies surrounding Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Bill. The following discussion and the 21 examples are from that report, “Expanded Criminalisation of Homosexuality in Uganda: A Flawed Narrative / Empirical evidence and strategic alternatives from an African perspective,” which was prepared by Sexual Minorities Uganda:In their work anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe provide wide‐ranging evidence in support of the fact that throughout Africa”s history, homosexuality has been a ‘‘consistent and logical feature of African societies and belief systems.” Thabo Msibi of the University of Kwazulu‐Natal documents many examples in Africa of same-sex desire being accommodated within pre-colonial rule.”Deborah P. Amory speaks of ‘‘a long history of diverse African peoples engaging in same-sex relations.” Drawing on anthropological studies of the pre-colonial and colonial eras, it is possible to document a vast array of same-sex practises and diverse understandings of gender across the entire continent.Examples include:

    One notably ‘‘explicit” Bushmen painting, which depicts African men engaging in same-sex sexual activity.
    In the late 1640s, a Dutch military attaché documented Nzinga, a warrior woman in the Ndongo kingdom of the Mbundu, who ruled as ‘‘king” rather than ‘‘queen”, dressed as a man and surrounded herself with a harem of young men who dressed as women and who were her ‘‘wives”.

    Eighteenth century anthropologist, Father J-B. Labat, documented the Ganga-Ya-Chibanda, presiding priest of the Giagues, a group within the Congo kingdom, who routinely cross-dressed and was referred to as ‘‘grandmother”.
    In traditional, monarchical Zande culture, anthropological records described homosexuality as ‘‘indigenous”. The Azande of the Northern Congo ‘‘routinely married” younger men who functioned as temporary wives – a practise that was institutionalised to such an extent that warriors would pay ‘‘brideprice” to the young man”s parents.
    Amongst Bantu-speaking Pouhain farmers (Bene, Bulu, Fang, Jaunde, Mokuk, Mwele, Ntum and Pangwe) in present-day Gabon and Cameroon, homosexual intercourse was known as bian nkû”ma– a medicine for wealth which was transmitted through sexual activity between men.
    Similarly in Uganda, amongst the Nilotico Lango, men who assumed ‘‘alternative gender status” were known as mukodo dako. They were treated as women and were permitted to marry other men.

    Same-sex relationships were reported amongst other groups in Uganda, including the Bahima, the Banyoro and the Baganda. King Mwanga II, the Baganda monarch, was widely reported to have engaged in sexual relations with his male subjects.

    A Jesuit working in Southern Africa in 1606 described finding ‘‘Chibadi, which are Men attired like Women, and behave themselves womanly, ashamed to be called men”.
    In the early 17th century in present-day Angola, Portuguese priests Gaspar Azevereduc and Antonius Sequerius encountered men who spoke, sat and dressed like women, and who entered into marriage with men. Such marriages were ‘‘honored and even prized”.
    In the Iteso communities, based in northwest Kenya and Uganda, same-sex relations existed amongst men who behaved as and were socially accepted as women.
    Same-sex practises were also recorded among the Banyoro and …
    the Langi.
    In pre-colonial Benin, homosexuality was seen as a phase that boys passed through and grew out of.
    There were practises of female-female marriages amongst the Nandi and …
    Kisii of Kenya, as well as …
    the Igbo of Nigeria,
    the Nuer of Sudan and
    the Kuria of Tanzania.
    Among Cape Bantu, lesbianism was ascribed to women who were in the process of becoming chief diviners, known as isanuses.

    This is by no means an exhaustive list. Given the overwhelming evidence of pre-colonial same-sex relations which continued into the colonial and post-colonial eras, as well as historical evidence of diverse understandings of gender identity, it is clear that homosexuality is no more ‘‘alien” to Africa than it is to any other part of the world.

    As stated by Murray and Roscoe: Numerous reports also indicate that in the highly sex-segregated societies of Africa, homosexual behaviour and relationships were not uncommon among peers, both male and female, especially in the years before heterosexual marriage. These kinds of relations were identified with specific terms and were to varying degrees institutionalized.

    What the colonisers imposed on Africa was not homosexuality “but rather intolerance of it — and systems of surveillance and regulation for suppressing it.””)

  • Homosexuality Is Very African As Much As It Is Nigerian.’ – Bisi Alimi speaks  (“Nigeria’s foremost gay activist, Bisi Alimi delivered a lecture two days ago ‘Post-colonial sexual identity and orientation in Nigeria’ at Free University in Berlin, Germany where he said homosexuality is very African as much as it is Nigerian. Below is an extract from his paper:Even though Nigeria has recently seen a more active conversation around the issue of sexuality and gender, these conversations are played out on the premise of sentiments, morality, religion and assumptions rather than on facts. But it is facts and not assumption that can put things into perspective.The argument against homosexuality in Nigeria has been on the premise that it is “un-African” and hence not part of our culture. The other premise used is that since it is not part of our culture, therefore it is “un-biblical”.Since the introduction of modern religion into Africa, there has been confusion between the real African identity vs. enforced identity.

    This confusion has also found its way into the discourse around cultural identity. The modern understanding of what really is an “African culture” has created a basis for identity misunderstanding not just in Nigeria, but the whole of Africa.

    It was not only religion that played a role in the misconstruction of “African Culture” in the 21st century. With the coming of colonizing, African identities were systematically washed away. Africans were made to believe through western education, politics and religion that anything African is not fit for purpose and therefore demonized in most of the cases.

    However, unlike culture, identity is more on a personal individualist level. Identity could be strongly interwoven with culture.

    I remembered when I first came to the United Kingdom, as a Nigerian. There are certain things in my culture that were not permitted within the English culture. For example, the English could not understand why I have to eat certain food with my fingers.

    However, that lack of cultural understanding has not taken away from me my gender identity as a man nor has it eroded my sexual identity as a gay man.

    Therefore, how then does the argument used by Nigerian religious and political class as regards sexuality and gender fit into the actualization of fundamental human rights for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people?

    Prior to colonization, there are evidences to prove that Africa was never a “heteronomative” society. In “African Sexualities: A Reader”, Sylvia Tamale argues: “African sexuality lies in ancient histories that live through girot, ighyuwas, imbongies, jellies, igawens, guewels”.

    As a young child with deep interest in my culture, I was really fascinated at the eloquences with which histories are passed on from generation to generations in Africa through the power of poetry and oration.

    I remembered in 2005, as part of my research in sexuality and sexual identity, I came across the famous word “Adodi”. This translates as “anus fucker”. The fact that there is a language for sexual behaviour explains that there are indeed people that are considered as such.

    Aside from that, many of African arts (it is important to note here that while Africans were never seen as writers, the one fact that can never be taken away from us is that fact that we are artists. We tell the story of our lives through our sculpture, painting and drawing), have shown the celebration of same sexual relationship before the colonization of the continent.

    African arts has had huge influence on the Greek art and even more so the Roman arts. These arts that not only promote but celebrate sexuality has African culture and identity at its core. From Igbo Ukwu, to Benin and Ife art, Nigerian art works celebrate the existence of same sexual relationship, not as seen as “homosexuality” in modern terms, but as a process of nurturing the acceptance of dualism of sexuality.

    In religious setting, most Nigerian gods actually have dual sexes. Take for example ESU who is neither man nor woman, male or female. Sango, the god of thunder is dressed as transvestites, wearing skirts with earrings on both ears and braided hair. Obatala, though a male god, is subtle, emotional and sexual.

    Even more interesting are the female gods. Oya the goddess of the ocean and Yemoja the mermaid are said to have used their sexuality to conquer men. They were not just seductive, but they exhibited a level of romantic affinity for each other.

    Then the question will be, what happened? Ben Anderson in “The Politics of Homosexuality in Africa” examined the written literature of colonial observation of same sexual relationship in Africa. According to him, examples of famous western sexuality historians like Staples, Davies and Whitten tend to disregard pre-colonial homosexuality in Africa as a forced, accidental ‘phase’ rather than a cognitive choice”.

    Anderson noted that in an article in 1982, Lamb argued, “it is curious by Western standards that homosexuality in Africa is virtually unknown.” He stated further that “Africa’s tradition is rigidly heterosexual”.

    As a student of African sexuality and gender identity, I know this is not true. I am not alone in my argument, Dr. C. Otutubikey Izugbara in a paper titled “Patriarchal Ideology and Discourses of Sexuality in Nigeria” explained that “evidence, indeed suggests that, in many cases, homosexual practices, while not always explicitly discussed or identified as such in larger public imaginary were often treated with more tolerance in pre-colonial Nigeria than during and after colonial period”.

    In the book “The Origins and Role of Same Sex Relations in Human Societies”, James Neil buttressed my earlier assertion that in Nigeria homosexuality is rooted in our traditional religious believe. He stated, “members of a spirit possession cult among the Hausa in northern Nigeria practices cross-dressing and take the passive role in homosexual intercourse”.

    Lyn Ossome in her contribution to Queer African Reader edited by Sokari Ekine and Hakima Abbas further dismissed the perceived westernization of homosexuality on the continent of Africa. In a contribution, she argued that the notion that “there is no homosexuality in Africa” is a false claim “often accompanied by the similarity insidious accusation that homosexuality is a ‘western perversion’ imposed upon or adopted by African population”.

    In the book “The Construction of Homosexuality”, Greenburg documented the existence of same sexual relationship in diverse African communities including Nigeria. Also Davis and co. in “The Cross-Cultural Study of Human Sexuality: Annual review of Anthropology” argued that “a wide variety of homosexual behaviour is reported”, they also documented “the use of artificial phalli” between two women as a “compensation for rare heterosexual intercourse”.

    Two notable anthropologists have not only documented behaviours, but they have also shown acceptance even to the level of marriage. First of such is William Naphy in his well-written book “Born to be Gay”. In it, Naphy captured the process of same gender marriage with the medium of paying bride price. He claimed, “it is clear that customs involving woman-woman ‘marriages’ (in which case bride-price and dowries may exchange hands) is extensive”. He dismissed argument against same sex relations in Africa as ‘ludicrous and to suggest that a practice which is so widespread and yet differently constructed is anything but indigenous. Even more so Naphy considered any argument by white Europeans against the exhibition of same sex relations between Africans as racism.

    Another interesting take on beyond sexual behaviour to actual exhibition of relationship is ‘Boy wives ad female husband’. According to Anderson, this book in its research “also effectively demonstrates the existence of same sex love before the arrival of the white settlers”.

    But let us for a second agree with the proposition of Staples that exhibition of same sexual behaviour in pre-colonial Nigeria was a phase. The question we then have to ask is: where did they learn this phase? Who and what influenced the occurrence of this phase among what the western academia will refer as “primitive” people.

    There are possibly two answers to these questions. It is either we argue that Africans are of lesser human and therefore happened to experiment occasional sexuality, or that actually, homosexuality like every other human traits is inherent in all people irrespective of race, gender, or age.

    If you agree with me that homosexuality is very African as much as it is Nigerian, then the argument put forward by both the western and the African opposition to homosexual behaviour is flawed.

    Based on the above explanation and argument, I will say that homosexuality is well rooted in the core of Nigerian society and identity.

    Source:

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